Charles B. Stephensen, Ph.D.

Charles Stephensen

Position Title
Adjunct Professor

  • B.S., Biochemistry, University of California, Davis, 1978
  • M.S., Human Nutrition, Cornell University, 1980
  • Ph.D., Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, 1985
Research Interests

Dr. Stephensen is the Director of the USDA Western Human Research Center (WHNRC).  His research interests focus on the relation between nutritional status and immune function, focusing on vitamin A, vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids. The effect of diet on the gut microbiome as a mediator of the impact of diet on immunity is also a current focus.

Selected Publications

Jacobson DL, Stephensen CB, Miller TL, Patel K, Chen JS, Van Dyke RB, Mirza A, Schuster GU, Hazra R, Ellis A, Brummel SS, Geffner ME, Silio M, Spector SA, DiMeglio LA; Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Associations of Low Vitamin D and Elevated Parathyroid Hormone Concentrations With Bone Mineral Density in Perinatally HIV-Infected Children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Sep 1;76(1):33-42. [PubMed]

Havens PL, Stephensen CB, Van Loan MD, Schuster GU, Woodhouse LR, Flynn PM, Gordon CM, Pan CG, Rutledge B, Harris DR, Price G, Baker A, Meyer WA 3rd, Wilson CM, Hazra R, Kapogiannis BG, Mulligan K; Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) 109 study team. Vitamin D3 Supplementation Increases Spine Bone Mineral Density in Adolescents and Young Adults with HIV Infection Being Treated with Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Aug 21. [PubMed]

Rubin LP, Ross AC, Stephensen CB, Bohn T, Tanumihardjo SA. Metabolic Effects of Inflammation on Vitamin A and Carotenoids in Humans and Animal Models. Adv Nutr. 2017 Mar 15;8(2):197-212. doi: 10.3945/an.116.014167. Print 2017 Mar. [PubMed]

Havens PL, Stephensen CB, Van Loan MD, Schuster GU, Woodhouse LR, Flynn PM, Gordon CM, Pan CG, Rutledge B, Liu N, Wilson CM, Hazra R, Hosek SG, Anderson PL, Seifert SM, Kapogiannis BG, Mulligan K; Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions 117 study team. Decline in Bone Mass With Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate/Emtricitabine Is Associated With Hormonal Changes in the Absence of Renal Impairment When Used by HIV-Uninfected Adolescent Boys and Young Men for HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Feb 1;64(3):317-325. [PubMed]

Zerofsky M, Ryder M, Bhatia S, Stephensen CB, King J, Fung EB. Effects of early vitamin D deficiency rickets on bone and dental health, growth and immunity. Matern Child Nutr 2015. [PubMed]

Raiten DJ, Sakr Ashour FA, Ross AC, Meydani SN, Dawson HD, Stephensen CB, Brabin BJ, Suchdev PS, van Ommen B. Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE). J Nutr 2015;145(5):1039s-108s. [PubMed]

Schuster GU, Bratt JM, Jiang X, Pedersen TL, Grapov D, Adkins Y, Kelley DS, Newman JW, Kenyon NJ, Stephensen CB. Dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids do not diminish eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2014;50(3):626-36. [PubMed]

O'Sullivan A, Armstrong P, Schuster GU, Pedersen TL, Allayee H, Stephensen CB, Newman JW. Habitual diets rich in dark-green vegetables are associated with an increased response to omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in Americans of African ancestry. J Nutr 2014;144(2):123-31. [PubMed]

Huda MN, Lewis Z, Kalanetra KM, Rashid M, Ahmad SM, Raqib R, Qadri F, Underwood MA, Mills DA, Stephensen CB. Stool microbiota and vaccine responses of infants. Pediatrics 2014;134(2):e362-72. [PubMed]

Havens PL, Hazra R, Stephensen CB, Kiser JJ, Flynn PM, Wilson CM, Rutledge B, Bethel J, Pan CG, Woodhouse LR, Van Loan MD, Liu N, Lujan-Zilbermann J, Baker A, Kapogiannis BG, Gordon CM, Mulligan K. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases fibroblast growth factor-23 in HIV-infected youths treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Antivir Ther 2014;19(6):613-8. [PubMed]

Ahmad SM, Raqib R, Qadri F, Stephensen CB. The effect of newborn vitamin A supplementation on infant immune functions: trial design, interventions, and baseline data. Contemp Clin Trials 2014;39(2):269-79. [PubMed]

Porter TR, Li X, Stephensen CB, Mulligan K, Rutledge B, Flynn PM, Lujan-Zilbermann J, Hazra R, Wilson CM, Havens PL, Tang J. Genetic associations with 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in HIV-1-infected youth: fine-mapping for the GC/DBP gene that encodes the vitamin D-binding protein. Front Genet 2013;4:234. [PubMed]

Livingston KA, Jiang X, Stephensen CB. CD4 T-helper cell cytokine phenotypes and antibody response following tetanus toxoid booster immunization. J Immunol Methods. 2013 Apr 30;390:18-29. [PubMed]

Havens PL, Kiser JJ, Stephensen CB, Hazra R, Flynn PM, Wilson CM, Rutledge B, Bethel J, Pan CG, Woodhouse LR, Van Loan MD, Liu N, Lujan-Zilbermann J, Baker A, Kapogiannis BG, Gordon CM, Mulligan K. Association of higher plasma vitamin D binding protein and lower free calcitriol levels with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate use and plasma and intracellular tenofovir pharmacokinetics: cause of a functional vitamin D deficiency? Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013;57(11):5619-28. [PubMed]

Zunino SJ, Parelman MA, Freytag TL, Stephensen CB, Kelley DS, Mackey BE, Woodhouse LR, Bonnel EL. Effects of dietary strawberry powder on blood lipids and inflammatory markers in obese human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep;108:900-9. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Zerofsky M, Burnett DJ, Lin YP, Hammock BD, Hall LM, McHugh T. Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults. J Nutr. 2012 Jul;142:1246-52. [PubMed]

Havens PL, Stephensen CB, Hazra R, Flynn PM, Wilson CM, Rutledge B, Bethel J, Pan CG, Woodhouse LR, et al. Vitamin D3 decreases parathyroid hormone in HIV-infected youth being treated with tenofovir: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr;54:1013-25. [PubMed]

Havens PL, Mulligan K, Hazra R, Flynn P, Rutledge B, Van Loan MD, Lujan-Zilbermann J, Kapogiannis BG, Wilson CM, Stephensen CB. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to vitamin D3 supplementation 50,000 IU monthly in youth with HIV-1 infection. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Nov;97:4004-13. [PubMed]

Armstrong P, Kelley DS, Newman JW, Staggers FE, Sr., Hartiala J, Allayee H, Stephensen CB. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene variants affect response to fish oil supplementation by healthy African Americans. J Nutr. 2012 Aug;142:1417-28. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Armstrong P, Newman JW, Pedersen TL, Legault J, Schuster GU, Kelley D, Vikman S, Hartiala J, et al. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation. J Lipid Res. 2011 May;52:991-1003. [PubMed]

Sharkar MT, Jou MY, Hossain MB, Lonnerdal B, Stephensen CB, Raqib R. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring. J Nutr. 2011 Aug;141:1559-64. [PubMed]

Makhoul Z, Kristal AR, Gulati R, Luick B, Bersamin A, O'Brien D, Hopkins SE, Stephensen CB, Stanhope KL, et al. Associations of obesity with triglycerides and C-reactive protein are attenuated in adults with high red blood cell eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul;65:808-17. [PubMed]

Hartiala J, Li D, Conti DV, Vikman S, Patel Y, Tang WH, Brennan ML, Newman JW, Stephensen CB, et al. Genetic contribution of the leukotriene pathway to coronary artery disease. Hum Genet. 2011 Jun;129:617-27. [PubMed]

Liang L, Chantry C, Styne DM, Stephensen CB. Prevalence and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency among healthy infants and young children in Sacramento, California. Eur J Pediatr. 2010 Nov;169:1337-44. [PubMed]

Hall LM, Kimlin MG, Aronov PA, Hammock BD, Slusser JR, Woodhouse LR, Stephensen CB. Vitamin D intake needed to maintain target serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in participants with low sun exposure and dark skin pigmentation is substantially higher than current recommendations. J Nutr. 2010 Mar;140:542-50. [PubMed]

Eneroth H, El Arifeen S, Persson LA, Lonnerdal B, Hossain MB, Stephensen CB, Ekstrom EC. Maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation has limited impact on micronutrient status of Bangladeshi infants compared with standard iron and folic acid supplementation. J Nutr. 2010 Mar;140:618-24. [PubMed]

Vikman S, Brena RM, Armstrong P, Hartiala J, Stephensen CB, Allayee H. Functional analysis of 5-lipoxygenase promoter repeat variants. Hum Mol Genet. 2009 Dec 1;18:4521-9. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Livingston KA. Vitamin supplements and vaccines: maximize benefits, evaluate potential risks. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Sep;90:457-8. [PubMed]

Maynard CL, Hatton RD, Helms WS, Oliver JR, Stephensen CB, Weaver CT. Contrasting roles for all-trans retinoic acid in TGF-beta-mediated induction of Foxp3 and Il10 genes in developing regulatory T cells. J Exp Med. 2009 Feb 16;206:343-57. [PubMed]

Ahmad SM, Haskell MJ, Raqib R, Stephensen CB. Markers of innate immune function are associated with vitamin a stores in men. J Nutr. 2009 Feb;139:377-85. [PubMed]

Ahmad SM, Haskell MJ, Raqib R, Stephensen CB. Vitamin A status is associated with T-cell responses in Bangladeshi men. Br J Nutr. 2009 Sep;102:797-802. [PubMed]

Schuster GU, Kenyon NJ, Stephensen CB. Vitamin A deficiency decreases and high dietary vitamin A increases disease severity in the mouse model of asthma. J Immunol. 2008 Feb 1;180:1834-42. [PubMed]

Aronov PA, Hall LM, Dettmer K, Stephensen CB, Hammock BD. Metabolic profiling of major vitamin D metabolites using Diels-Alder derivatization and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2008 Jul;391:1917-30. [PubMed]

Ahmad SM, Haskell MJ, Raqib R, Stephensen CB. Men with low vitamin A stores respond adequately to primary yellow fever and secondary tetanus toxoid vaccination. J Nutr. 2008 Nov;138:2276-83. [PubMed]

Zunino SJ, Storms DH, Stephensen CB. Diets rich in polyphenols and vitamin A inhibit the development of type I autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. J Nutr. 2007 May;137:1216-21. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Marquis GS, Douglas SD, Kruzich LA, Wilson CM. Glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and selenium status in HIV-positive and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;85:173-81. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Borowsky AD, Lloyd KC. Disruption of Rxra gene in thymocytes and T lymphocytes modestly alters lymphocyte frequencies, proliferation, survival and T helper type 1/type 2 balance. Immunology. 2007 Aug;121:484-98. [PubMed]

Raqib R, Hossain MB, Kelleher SL, Stephensen CB, Lonnerdal B. Zinc supplementation of pregnant rats with adequate zinc nutriture suppresses immune functions in their offspring. J Nutr. 2007 Apr;137:1037-42. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Marquis GS, Kruzich LA, Douglas SD, Aldrovandi GM, Wilson CM. Vitamin D status in adolescents and young adults with HIV infection. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 May;83:1135-41. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Marquis GS, Jacob RA, Kruzich LA, Douglas SD, Wilson CM. Vitamins C and E in adolescents and young adults with HIV infection. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Apr;83:870-9. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Kelley DS. The innate immune system: friend and foe. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb;83:187-8. [PubMed]

Humphrey BD, Stephensen CB, Calvert CC, Klasing KC. Lysine deficiency and feed restriction independently alter cationic amino acid transporter expression in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2006 Feb;143:218-27. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Marquis GS, Douglas SD, Wilson CM. Immune activation and oxidative damage in HIV-positive and HIV-negative adolescents. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Feb 1;38:180-90. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Marquis GS, Douglas SD, Wilson CM. Plasma cytokines and oxidative damage in HIV-positive and HIV-negative adolescents and young adults: a protective role for IL-10? Free Radic Res. 2005 Aug;39:859-64. [PubMed]

Rasooly R, Schuster GU, Gregg JP, Xiao JH, Chandraratna RA, Stephensen CB. Retinoid x receptor agonists increase bcl2a1 expression and decrease apoptosis of naive T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2005 Dec 15;175:7916-29. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB. Fish oil and inflammatory disease: is asthma the next target for n-3 fatty acid supplements? Nutr Rev. 2004 Dec;62:486-9. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Jiang X, Freytag T. Vitamin A deficiency increases the in vivo development of IL-10-positive Th2 cells and decreases development of Th1 cells in mice. J Nutr. 2004 Oct;134:2660-6. [PubMed]

Kruzich LA, Marquis GS, Wilson CM, Stephensen CB. HIV-infected US youth are at high risk of obesity and poor diet quality: a challenge for improving short- and long-term health outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Oct;104:1554-60. [PubMed]

Kruzich LA, Marquis GS, Carriquiry AL, Wilson CM, Stephensen CB. US youths in the early stages of HIV disease have low intakes of some micronutrients important for optimal immune function. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Jul;104:1095-101. [PubMed]

Humphrey BD, Stephensen CB, Calvert CC, Klasing KC. Glucose and cationic amino acid transporter expression in growing chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2004 Aug;138:515-25. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB. Vitamin A, beta-carotene, and mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Nutr Rev. 2003 Aug;61:280-4. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB. Commentary: A hypothesis concerning vitamin A supplementation, vaccines, and childhood mortality. Int J Epidemiol. 2003 Oct;32:828-9. [PubMed]

Jacob RA, Aiello GM, Stephensen CB, Blumberg JB, Milbury PE, Wallock LM, Ames BN. Moderate antioxidant supplementation has no effect on biomarkers of oxidant damage in healthy men with low fruit and vegetable intakes. J Nutr. 2003 Mar;133:740-3. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Rasooly R, Jiang X, Ceddia MA, Weaver CT, Chandraratna RA, Bucy RP. Vitamin A enhances in vitro Th2 development via retinoid X receptor pathway. J Immunol. 2002 May 1;168:4495-503. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Franchi LM, Hernandez H, Campos M, Colarossi A, Gilman RH, Alvarez JO. Assessment of vitamin A status with the relative-dose-response test in Peruvian children recovering from pneumonia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec;76:1351-7. [PubMed]

Mitra AK, Wahed MA, Chowdhury AK, Stephensen CB. Urinary retinol excretion in children with acute watery diarrhoea. J Health Popul Nutr. 2002 Mar;20:12-7. [PubMed]

Drammeh BS, Marquis GS, Funkhouser E, Bates C, Eto I, Stephensen CB. A randomized, 4-month mango and fat supplementation trial improved vitamin A status among young Gambian children. J Nutr. 2002 Dec;132:3693-9. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB. Vitamin A, infection, and immune function. Annu Rev Nutr. 2001;21:167-92. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB. Examining the effect of a nutrition intervention on immune function in healthy humans: what do we mean by immune function and who is really healthy anyway? Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Nov;74:565-6. [PubMed]

Kemper C, Leung M, Stephensen CB, Pinkert CA, Liszewski MK, Cattaneo R, Atkinson JP. Membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) expression in transgenic mice. Clin Exp Immunol. 2001 May;124:180-9. [PubMed]

Welter J, Taylor J, Tartaglia J, Paoletti E, Stephensen CB. Vaccination against canine distemper virus infection in infant ferrets with and without maternal antibody protection, using recombinant attenuated poxvirus vaccines. J Virol. 2000 Jul;74:6358-67. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Gildengorin G. Serum retinol, the acute phase response, and the apparent misclassification of vitamin A status in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Nov;72:1170-8. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB. When does hyporetinolemia mean vitamin A deficiency? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jul;72:1-2. [PubMed]

Cui D, Moldoveanu Z, Stephensen CB. High-level dietary vitamin A enhances T-helper type 2 cytokine production and secretory immunoglobulin A response to influenza A virus infection in BALB/c mice. J Nutr. 2000 May;130:1132-9. [PubMed]

Welter J, Taylor J, Tartaglia J, Paoletti E, Stephensen CB. Mucosal vaccination with recombinant poxvirus vaccines protects ferrets against symptomatic CDV infection. Vaccine. 1999 Jan 28;17:308-18. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Casebolt DB, Gangopadhyay NN. Phylogenetic analysis of a highly conserved region of the polymerase gene from 11 coronaviruses and development of a consensus polymerase chain reaction assay. Virus Res. 1999 Apr;60:181-9. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB. Burden of infection on growth failure. J Nutr. 1999 Feb;129:534S-8S. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Franchi LM, Hernandez H, Campos M, Gilman RH, Alvarez JO. Adverse effects of high-dose vitamin A supplements in children hospitalized with pneumonia. Pediatrics. 1998 May;101:E3. [PubMed]

Sarkar J, Gangopadhyay NN, Moldoveanu Z, Mestecky J, Stephensen CB. Vitamin A is required for regulation of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) expression by interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma in a human intestinal epithelial cell line. J Nutr. 1998 Jul;128:1063-9. [PubMed]

Mitra AK, Alvarez JO, Wahed MA, Fuchs GJ, Stephensen CB. Predictors of serum retinol in children with shigellosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Nov;68:1088-94. [PubMed]

Mitra AK, Alvarez JO, Stephensen CB. Increased urinary retinol loss in children with severe infections. Lancet. 1998 Apr 4;351:1033-4. [PubMed]

Mitra AK, Alvarez JO, Guay-Woodford L, Fuchs GJ, Wahed MA, Stephensen CB. Urinary retinol excretion and kidney function in children with shigellosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Nov;68:1095-103. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Welter J, Thaker SR, Taylor J, Tartaglia J, Paoletti E. Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of ferrets as a model for testing Morbillivirus vaccine strategies: NYVAC- and ALVAC-based CDV recombinants protect against symptomatic infection. J Virol. 1997 Feb;71:1506-13. [PubMed]

Park JY, Peters CJ, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Katholi CR, Waites KB, Gray B, Maetz HM, Stephensen CB. Age distribution of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serum antibody in Birmingham, Alabama: evidence of a decreased risk of infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Jul;57:37-41. [PubMed]

Park JY, Peters CJ, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Gray B, Waites KB, Stephensen CB. Development of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for diagnosis of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection and its use in a prospective surveillance study. J Med Virol. 1997 Feb;51:107-14. [PubMed]

Casebolt DB, Qian B, Stephensen CB. Detection of enterotropic mouse hepatitis virus fecal excretion by polymerase chain reaction. Lab Anim Sci. 1997 Feb;47:6-10. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Moldoveanu Z, Gangopadhyay NN. Vitamin A deficiency diminishes the salivary immunoglobulin A response and enhances the serum immunoglobulin G response to influenza A virus infection in BALB/c mice. J Nutr. 1996 Jan;126:94-102. [PubMed]

Ross AC, Stephensen CB. Vitamin A and retinoids in antiviral responses. FASEB J. 1996 Jul;10:979-85. [PubMed]

Gangopadhyay NN, Moldoveanu Z, Stephensen CB. Vitamin A deficiency has different effects on immunoglobulin A production and transport during influenza A infection in BALB/c mice. J Nutr. 1996 Dec;126:2960 [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Park JY, Blount SR. cDNA sequence analysis confirms that the etiologic agent of callitrichid hepatitis is lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J Virol. 1995 Feb;69:1349-52. [PubMed]

Alvarez JO, Salazar-Lindo E, Kohatsu J, Miranda P, Stephensen CB. Urinary excretion of retinol in children with acute diarrhea. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Jun;61:1273-6. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Alvarez JO, Kohatsu J, Hardmeier R, Kennedy JI, Jr., Gammon RB, Jr. Vitamin A is excreted in the urine during acute infection. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 Sep;60:388-92. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Blount SR, Schoeb TR, Park JY. Vitamin A deficiency impairs some aspects of the host response to influenza A virus infection in BALB/c mice. J Nutr. 1993 May;123:823-33. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Blount SR, Lanford RE, Holmes KV, Montali RJ, Fleenor ME, Shaw JF. Prevalence of serum antibodies against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in selected populations from two U.S. cities. J Med Virol. 1992 Sep;38:27-31. [PubMed]

Compton SR, Stephensen CB, Snyder SW, Weismiller DG, Holmes KV. Coronavirus species specificity: murine coronavirus binds to a mouse-specific epitope on its carcinoembryonic antigen-related receptor glycoprotein. J Virol. 1992 Dec;66:7420-8. [PubMed]

Casebolt DB, Stephensen CB. Monoclonal antibody solution hybridization assay for detection of mouse hepatitis virus infection. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Mar;30:608-12. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Jacob JR, Montali RJ, Holmes KV, Muchmore E, Compans RW, Arms ED, Buchmeier MJ, Lanford RE. Isolation of an arenavirus from a marmoset with callitrichid hepatitis and its serologic association with disease. J Virol. 1991 Aug;65:3995-4000. [PubMed]

Van Loon FP, Clemens JD, Shahrier M, Sack DA, Stephensen CB, Khan MR, Rabbani GH, Rao MR, Banik AK. Low gastric acid as a risk factor for cholera transmission: application of a new non-invasive gastric acid field test. J Clin Epidemiol. 1990;43:1361-7. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Montali RJ, Ramsay EC, Holmes KV. Identification, using sera from exposed animals, of putative viral antigens in livers of primates with callitrichid hepatitis. J Virol. 1990 Dec;64:6349-54. [PubMed]

Roos DS, Duchala CS, Stephensen CB, Holmes KV, Choppin PW. Control of virus-induced cell fusion by host cell lipid composition. Virology. 1990 Apr;175:345-57. [PubMed]

Holmes KV, Williams RK, Cardellichio CB, Compton SR, Stephensen CB, Snyder SW, Frana MF, Jiang GS, Smith A, Knobler RL. Is the 110K glycoprotein the only receptor for MHV and does its expression determine species specificity? Adv Exp Med Biol. 1990;276:37-44. [PubMed]

Montali RJ, Ramsay EC, Stephensen CB, Worley M, Davis JA, Holmes KV. A new transmissible viral hepatitis of marmosets and tamarins. J Infect Dis. 1989 Nov;160:759-65. [PubMed]

Singh VK, Maheshwari RK, Damewood GPt, Stephensen CB, Oliver C, Friedman RM. Interferon alters intracellular transport of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 1988 Apr-Jun;2:53-62. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Sack RB, Sack DA. Comparison of noninvasive breath hydrogen test for gastric acid secretion to standard intubation test in infants and young children. Dig Dis Sci. 1987 Sep;32:978-84. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB, Leon-Barua R, Sack RB, Sack DA. Comparison of noninvasive breath hydrogen test for gastric acid secretion to standard intubation test in adults. Dig Dis Sci. 1987 Sep;32:973-7. [PubMed]

Holmes KV, Boyle JF, Weismiller DG, Compton SR, Williams RK, Stephensen CB, Frana MF. Identification of a receptor for mouse hepatitis virus. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1987;218:197-202. [PubMed]

Sack DA, Stephensen CB. Liberation of hydrogen from gastric acid following administration of oral magnesium. Dig Dis Sci. 1985 Dec;30:1127-33. [PubMed]

Stephensen CB. Nutrition, Immunity and AIDS. Chapter 27 in: Handbook of Clinical Nutrition, 3d ed., C.V. Mosby Company, Baltimore, 1996.

Stephensen CB. Immunity, Immune Compromise and AIDS. in: Fundamentals of Clinical Nutrition. 2d ed., C.V. Mosby Company, Baltimore, 1997.

Holmes KV, R Williams, CB Stephensen. Coronavirus receptors. In: "Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis," A Notkins and M Oldstone, eds., Springer-Verlag, N.Y., 1989.

Holmes KV, Williams R, Stephensen CB, Compton S, Cardellichio C, Hay M, Knobler R. Coronavirus receptors. In: "Cell Biology of Virus Entry, Replication and Pathogenesis," UCLA Symposium on Molecular and Cell Biology (New Series). Vol. 90, R Compans, A Helenius, M Oldstone, eds. Alan R. Liss, Inc. pp. 85-95, 1989.

Holmes KV, Boyle JF, Weismiller DG, Compton SR, Williams RK, Stephensen CB, Frana MF. Identification of a receptor for mouse hepatitis virus. In: "Coronaviruses," MC Lai, SA Stohlman, eds., Plenum Publishing Corp., 1987.

Holmes KV, Boyle JF, Williams RK, Stephensen CB, Robbins SG, Bauer EC. Processing of coronavirus proteins and assembly of virions. In: "Positive Strand RNA Viruses," M Brinton, R Rueckert, eds., Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1986.