Carl L. Keen, Ph.D.

 Carl L. Keen, Ph.D.

Position

  • Professor
  • Department of Nutrition and Department of Internal Medicine
  • The Mars Chair
  • Developmental Nutrition
  • Nutritionist
  • Agricultural Experiment Station

Contact

Education

  • Ph.D., University of California, Davis

Research Interests

Dr. Keen has been a member of the nutrition faculty at the University of California, Davis since 1981. He was the Chairman of the Department of Nutrition from 1993 to 2006. He is a member of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences (ASNS), the American Society of Clinical Nutrition (ASCN), the Teratology Society, the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine (SEBM), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Dr. Keen has over 600 peer reviewed scientific publications.

The activities of Dr. Keen’s research group are currently focused in two areas; the investigation of the influence of maternal diet on the risk for pregnancy complications (maternal, conceptus, and fetal) and the influence of diet on the risk for age-related chronic diseases. Regarding the influence of diet on embryonic and fetal development, his group has been studying the acute and long-term consequences of micronutrient deficiencies on embryonic and fetal development for almost three decades. The majority of their efforts have been centered on the characterization of the effects of primary and secondary zinc and copper deficiencies. Recently this work has been focused on the effects of these deficiencies on oxidative stress in the conceptus, and its consequences, particularly with respect to the vascular system and the developing brain. Regarding the influence of diet and chronic disease, during the past decade his group’s work has been centered on the study of dietary factors that influence the risk for vascular disease. A current hypothesis in the laboratory is that a significant part of the positive cardiovascular health benefits associated with plant food rich diets can be attributed to their flavanol content.

Selected Publications

(Last 10 years)

Scherr, R.E., Dharmar, M. Linnell, J., Smith, M.H., Briggs, M., Bergman, J., Brian, K., Feenstra, G., Hillhouse, J.C., Keen, C.L., Beccarelli, L.M., Ontai, L.L., Schaefer, S.E., Spezzano, T., Steinberg, F.M, Sutter, C., Young, H.M., and Zidenberg-Cherr, S. Sustained BMI improvement from the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a multi-component, school-based, nutrition intervention. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. In Press.

Beccarellli L, Scherr RE, Linnell JD, Dharmar, M, Brian K, Ermakov I, Gellermann W, Jahns, L, Keen CL, Miyamoto S, Steinberg F, Young HM, Zidenberg-Cherr, S. Using Skin Carotenoids to Assess Potential Dietary Changes in Students After One Academic Year Participating in the Shaping Healthy Choices Program. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. In Press.

Scherr RE, Linnell JD, Dharmar M, Beccarelli LM, Bergman JJ, Briggs M, Brian KM, Feenstra G, Hillhouse JC, Keen CL, Ontai LL, Schaefer SE, Smith MH, Spezzano T, Steinberg FM, Sutter C, Young HM, Zidenberg-Cherr S. A Multicomponent, School-Based Intervention, the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, Improves Nutrition-Related Outcomes. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2017 Feb 8. pii: S1499-4046(16)30961-7. [PubMed]

Djurica D, Holt RR, Ren J, Shindel AW, Hackman RM, Keen CL. Effects of a dietary strawberry powder on parameters of vascular health in adolescent males. Br J Nutr. 2016 Aug;116(4):639-47. [PubMed]

Ottaviani JI, Borges G, Momma TY, Spencer JP, Keen CL, Crozier A, Schroeter H. The metabolome of [2-(14)C](-)-epicatechin in humans: implications for the assessment of efficacy, safety, and mechanisms of action of polyphenolic bioactives. Sci Rep. 2016 Jul 1;6:29034. [Pubmed]

Borchers AT, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. The Basis of Structure/Function Claims of Nutraceuticals. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2016 Apr 28. [PubMed]

Hourigan LA, Omaye ST, Keen CL, Jones JA, Dubick MA. Vitamin and Trace Element Loss from Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2016 Jan;29(1):20-25. [PubMed]

Coles CD, Kable JA, Keen CL, Jones KL, Wertelecki W, Granovska IV, Pashtepa AO, Chambers CD; CIFASD. Dose and Timing of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Maternal Nutritional Supplements: Developmental Effects on 6-Month-Old Infants. Matern Child Health J. 2015 Dec;19(12):2605-14. doi: 10.1007/s10995-015-1779-x. [PubMed]

Ottaviani JI, Balz M, Kimball J, Ensunsa JL, Fong R, Momma TY, Kwik-Uribe C, Schroeter H, Keen CL. Safety and efficacy of cocoa flavanol intake in healthy adults: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Nov 4. pii: ajcn116178. [PubMed]

Kable JA, Coles CD, Keen CL, Uriu-Adams JY, Jones KL, Yevtushok L, Kulikovsky Y, Wertelecki W, Pedersen TL, Chambers CD; CIFASD. The impact of micronutrient supplementation in alcohol-exposed pregnancies on information processing skills in Ukrainian infants. Alcohol. 2015 Nov;49(7):647-56. doi: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.08.005. [PubMed]

Schroeter H, Keen CL, Sesso HD, Manson JE, Lupton JR. Is this the end of (-)-epicatechin, or not? New study highlights the complex challenges associated with research into the cardiovascular health benefits of bioactive food constituents. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Oct;102(4):975-6. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.117283. [PubMed]

Holt RR, Yim SJ, Shearer GC, Hackman RM, Djurica D, Newman JW, Shindel AW, Keen CL. Effects of short-term walnut consumption on human microvascular function and its relationship to plasma epoxide content. J Nutr Biochem. 2015 Aug 1. pii: S0955-2863(15)00176-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.07.012. [PubMed]

Nguyen LM, Scherr RE, Linnell JD, Ermakov IV, Gellermann W, Jahns L, Keen CL, Miyamoto S, Steinberg FM, Young HM, Zidenberg-Cherr S. Evaluating the relationship between plasma and skin carotenoids and reported dietary intake in elementary school children to assess fruit and vegetable intake. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2015 Apr 15;572:73-80. [PubMed]

Dubick MA, Barr JL, Keen CL, Atkins JL. Ceruloplasmin and Hypoferremia: Studies in Burn and Non-Burn Trauma Patients. Antioxidants (Basel). 2015 Mar 6;4(1):153-69. doi: 10.3390/antiox4010153. [PubMed]

Yang H, Keen CL, Lanoue L. Influence of intracellular zinc on cultures of rat cardiac neural crest cells. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2015 Feb;104(1):11-22. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Keen CL, Huntley AC, Gershwin ME. Lyme disease: a rigorous review of diagnostic criteria and treatment. J Autoimmun 2015 PubMed

Dwyer JT, Wiemer KL, Dary O, Keen CL, King JC, Miller KB, Philbert MA, Tarasuk V, Taylor CL, Gaine PC, Jarvis AB, Bailey RL. Fortification and health: challenges and opportunities. Adv Nutr. 2015 Jan 15;6(1):124-31. [PubMed]

Scherr RE, Linnell JD, Smith MH, Briggs M, Bergman J, Brian KM, Dharmar M, Feenstra G, Hillhouse C, Keen CL, Nguyen LM, Nicholson Y, Ontai L, Schaefer SE, Spezzano T, Steinberg FM, Sutter C, Wright JE, Young HM, Zidenberg-Cherr S. The Shaping Healthy Choices Program: design and implementation methodologies for a multicomponent, school-based nutrition education intervention. J Nutr Educ Behav 2014;46(6):e13-21. [PubMed]

Le A, Shibata NM, French SW, Kim K, Kharbanda KK, Islam MS, LaSalle JM, Halsted CH, Keen CL, Medici V. Characterization of timed changes in hepatic copper concentrations, methionine metabolism, gene expression, and global DNA methylation in the Jackson toxic milk mouse model of Wilson disease. Int J Mol Sci 2014;15(5):8004-23. [PubMed]

Hackman RM, Aggarwal BB, Applebaum RS, deVere White RW, Dubick MA, Heber D, Ito T, Johnson GH, Keen CL, Winters BL, Stohs SJ. Forecasting nutrition research in 2020. J Am Coll Nutr 2014;33(4):340-6. [PubMed]

Burke KE, Zhou X, Wang Y, Commisso J, Keen CL, Nakamura RM, Combs GF, Jr., Wei H. The effects of topical L-selenomethionine on protection against UVB-induced skin cancer when given before, during, and after UVB exposure. J Drugs Dermatol 2014;13(10):1214-23. [PubMed]

Medici V, Shibata NM, Kharbanda KK, Islam MS, Keen CL, Kyuongmi K, Tillman B, French SW, Halsted CH, LaSalle JM.  Maternal choline modifies fetal liver copper, gene expression, DNA methylation, and neonatal growth in the tx-j mouse model of Wilson disease. Epigenetics. 2014 February 1; 9(2): 286–296. [PubMed]

Chowanadisai W, Graham DM, Keen CL, Rucker RB, Messerli MA. A zinc transporter gene required for development of the nervous system.  Commun Integr Biol. 2013 November 1; 6(6): e26207. [PubMed]

Uriu-Adams JY, Obican SG, Keen CL. Birth Defects Res C. Vitamin D and maternal and child health: overview and implications for dietary requirements. Embryo Today. 2013 Mar;99(1):24-44. [PubMed]

Chowanadisai W, Graham DM, Keen CL, Rucker RB, Messerli MA. Neurulation and neurite extension require the zinc transporter ZIP12 (slc39a12). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 11;110(24):9903-8. [PubMed]

Zunino SJ, Storms DH, Newman JW, Pedersen TL, Keen CL, Ducore JM. Oral or parenteral administration of curcumin does not prevent the growth of high-risk t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells engrafted into a NOD/SCID mouse model. Int J Oncol. 2013 Feb;42(2):741-8. [PubMed]

Zunino SJ, Storms DH, Newman JW, Pedersen TL, Keen CL, Ducore JM. Dietary resveratrol does not delay engraftment, sensitize to vincristine or inhibit growth of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in NOD/SCID mice. Int J Oncol. 2012 Dec;41(6):2207-12. [PubMed]

Reiss R, Johnston J, Tucker K, DeSesso JM, Keen CL. Estimation of cancer risks and benefits associated with a potential increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Dec;50(12):4421-7. [PubMed]

Holt RR, Heiss C, Kelm M, Keen CL. The potential of flavanol and procyanidin intake to influence age-related vascular disease. J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr. 2012;31(3):290-323. [PubMed]

Ottaviani JI, Kwik-Uribe C, Keen CL, Schroeter H. Intake of dietary procyanidins does not contribute to the pool of circulating flavanols in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Apr;95(4):851-8. [PubMed]

Ottaviani JI, Momma TY, Kuhnle GK, Keen CL, Schroeter H. Structurally related (-)-epicatechin metabolites in humans: assessment using de novo chemically synthesized authentic standards. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012 Apr 15;52(8):1403-12. [PubMed]

Zunino SJ, Storms DH, Newman JW, Pedersen TL, Keen CL, Ducore JM. Resveratrol given intraperitoneally does not inhibit the growth of high-risk t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in a NOD/SCID mouse model. Int J Oncol. 2012 Apr;40(4):1277-84. [PubMed]

Hills JI, Golub MS, Bettendorff L, Keen CL. The effect of thiamin tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide on behavior of juvenile DBA/2J mice. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2012 Mar;34(2):242-52. [PubMed]

Mackenzie GG, Salvador GA, Romero C, Keen CL, Oteiza PI. A deficit in zinc availability can cause alterations in tubulin thiol redox status in cultured neurons and in the developing fetal rat brain. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Jul 15;51(2):480-9. [PubMed]

Chambers A, Krewski D, Birkett N, Plunkett L, Hertzberg R, Danzeisen R, Aggett PJ, Starr TB, Baker S, Dourson M, Jones P, Keen CL, Meek B, Schoeny R, Slob W. An exposure-response curve for copper excess and deficiency. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2010 Oct;13(7-8):546-78. [PubMed]

Ottaviani JI, Momma TY, Heiss C, Kwik-Uribe C, Schroeter H, Keen CL. The stereochemical configuration of flavanols influences the level and metabolism of flavanols in humans and their biological activity in vivo. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Jan 15;50(2):237-44. [PubMed]

Schroeter H, Heiss C, Spencer JP, Keen CL, Lupton JR, Schmitz HH. Recommending flavanols and procyanidins for cardiovascular health: current knowledge and future needs. Mol Aspects Med. 2010 Dec;31(6):546-57. [PubMed]

Heiss C, Keen CL, Kelm M. Flavanols and cardiovascular disease prevention. Eur Heart J. 2010 Nov;31(21):2583-92. [PubMed]

Shenoy SF, Kazaks AG, Holt RR, Chen HJ, Winters BL, Khoo CS, Poston WS, Haddock CK, Reeves RS, Foreyt JP, Gershwin ME, Keen CL. The use of a commercial vegetable juice as a practical means to increase vegetable intake: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J. 2010 Sep 17;9:38. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Chang C, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-an epidemiological and pathological review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2011 Apr;40(2):117-34. [PubMed]

Uriu-Adams JY, Keen CL. Zinc and reproduction: effects of zinc deficiency on prenatal and early postnatal development. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2010 Aug;89(4):313-25. [PubMed]

Heiss C, Jahn S, Taylor M, Real WM, Angeli FS, Wong ML, Amabile N, Prasad M, Rassaf T, Ottaviani JI, Mihardja S, Keen CL, Springer ML, Boyle A, Grossman W, Glantz SA, Schroeter H, Yeghiazarians Y. Improvement of endothelial function with dietary flavanols is associated with mobilization of circulating angiogenic cells in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Jul 13;56(3):218-24. [PubMed]

Shenoy SF, Poston WS, Reeves RS, Kazaks AG, Holt RR, Keen CL, Chen HJ, Haddock CK, Winters BL, Khoo CS, Foreyt JP. Weight loss in individuals with metabolic syndrome given DASH diet counseling when provided a low sodium vegetable juice: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J. 2010 Feb 23;9:8.[PubMed]

Borchers A, Teuber SS, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Food safety. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2010 Oct;39(2):95-141. [PubMed]

Kalgaonkar S, Nishioka H, Gross HB, Fujii H, Keen CL, Hackman RM. Bioactivity of a flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract in adipocytes and its effects on oxidant defense and indices of metabolic syndrome in animal models. Phytother Res. 2010 Aug;24(8):1223-8. [PubMed]

Keen Cl, Uriu-Adams JY, Skainy A, Garbeklis S, Green K, Yevtushok l, Wertelecki WW, Chambers CD. The plausibility of maternal nutrition status being a contributing factor to the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: The potential influence of zinc status as an example. BioFactors. 2010;36: 125-35. [PubMed]

Uriu-Adams JY, Scherr RE, Lanoue l, Keen CL. Influence of copper on early development: prenatal and postnatal considerations. BioFactors. 2010;36: 136-52. [PubMed]

Lanoue l, Green KK, Kwik-Uribe C, Keen CL. Dietary factors and the risk for acute infant leukemia: Evaluating the effects of cocoa-derived flavanols on DNA topoisomerase activity. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2010;235: 77-89. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Naguwa SM, Keen Cl, Gershwin ME. The implications of autoimmunity and pregnancy. Journal of Autoimmunity. 2010;34: J287 -99. [PubMed]

Gershwin ME, Borchers AT, Keen Cl, Hendler S, Hagie F, Greenwood MR. Public safety and dietary supplementation .. Annals New York Academy of Science, 2010;1190:104-17. [PubMed]

Fujimoto M, Tsuneyama K, Kinoshita H, Goto H, Takano Y, Selmi C, Keen Cl, Gershwin ME, Shimada Y. The traditional Japanese formula keishibukuryogan reduces liver injury and inflammation in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Annals New York Academy of Science, 2010;1190: 151-8. [PubMed]

Hanna LA, Clegg MS, Ellis-Hutchings RG, Niles BJ, Keen CL.  The influence of gestational zinc deficiency on the fetal insulin-like growth factor axis in the rat.  Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2010;235:206-214. [PubMed]

Kalgaonkar S., Gross HB., Yokoyama W., Keen, CL.  Effects of flavonol-rich diet on select cardiovascular parameters in a Golden Syrian hamster model.  Journal of Medicinal Foods.   2010;13:108-115. [PubMed]

Adano AM, Zago MP, Mackenzie GG, Aimo L, Keen CL, Keenan A. Orteiza PI. The Role of Zinc in the Modulation of Neuronal Proliferation and Apoptosis. Neurotoxicity Research. 2010;17:1-14. [PubMed]

MacKenzie GG, Delfino JM, Keen CL, Fraga CG, Oteiza PI.  Dimeric procyanidins are inhibitors of NF-KB-DNA binding.  Biochemical Pharmacology. 2009;78:1252-1262. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Shimoda S, Bowlus C, Keen CL, Gershwin ME.  Seminars in Immunopathology. 2009; 31:309-322. [PubMed]

Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Ohia SE, Kaats GR, Keen CL, Williams LD, Burdock GA. No evidence demonstrating hepatotoxicity associated with hydroxycitric acid.  World Journal of Gastroenterology.  2009;15:4087-4089. [PubMed]

Ellis-Hutchings, R.G., Cherr, G.N., Hanna, L.A., and Keen, C.L.  The effects of marginal maternal vitamin A status on penta-brominated diphenyl ether mixture-induced alterations in maternal and conceptal vitamin A and fetal development in the Sprague-Dawley Rat.  Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology.  2009;86:48-57. [PubMed]

DeSesso, J.M., Watson, R.E., Keen, C.L., Hazelden, K.P., Hawes, L.C., and Li, A.A. Analysis and Integration of Developmental Neurotoxicity and Ancillary Data into Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Dimethoate. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A: Current Issues. 2009; 71:94-109. [PubMed]

Borchers, A.T., Selmi, C., Meyers, F.J., Keen, C.L., and Gershwin, M.E. Probiotics and Immunity. Journal of Gastroenterology.  2009;44:26-46. [PubMed]

Kenny, T.P., Shu, S., Monitoki, Y., Keen, C.L., and Gershwin, M.E.  Cocoa flavanols and procyanidins can modulate the lipopolysaccharide activation of polymorphonuclear cells in vitro.  Journal of Medicinal Foods.  2009;12:1-7. [PubMed]

Yang SJ, Keen CL, Uriu-Adams JY.  Effects of nitric oxide donor supplementation on copper deficient embryos and nitric oxide-mediated downstream signaling.  Korean Journal of Nutrition. 2008;41:691-700.

Rucker, R.B., Fascetti, A.J., and Keen, C.L.  Trace Minerals. In: Kaneko, J.J., Harvey, J.W., Bruss M.L., (eds.).  Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals – Sixth Edition.  Elsevier Academic Press.  San Diego, CA. pp 663-693, 2008.

Selmi, C. Cocchi, C.A., LauFredini, M., Keen, C.L., and Gershwin, M.E.  Chocolate at heart: The anti-inflammatory impact of cocoa flovanols.  Molecular Nutrition Food Research. 2008;52:1340-1348. [PubMed]

Danzeisen, R., Araya, M., Harrison, B., Keen, C.L., Solioz, M., Thiele, D., and McArdle, H.J. How reliable and robust are current biomarkers for copper status? British Journal of Nutrition.  2008;100:1343-1344. [PubMed]

Niles, B.J., Clegg, M.S., Hanna, L.A., Chou, S.S., Momma, T.Y., Hong, H., and Keen, C.L.  Zinc deficiency-induced iron accumulation:  A consequence of alterations in iron regulatory protein binding activity, iron transporters, and iron storage proteins.  Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2008;283:5168-5177.  [PubMed]

Devaraj, S., Wang-Pologruto, J., Pologruto, J., Keen, C.L., and Jialal, I.  High-fat, energy-dense, fast-food-style breakfast results in an increase in oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome.  Metabolism. 2008;57:867-870. [PubMed]

Balzer, J., Rassaf, T., Heiss, C., Kleinbongard, P., Lauer, T., Merx, M., Heussen, N., Gross, H.B.,  Keen, C.L., Schroeter, H., and Kelm, M.  Sustained benefits in vascular function through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients: A double-masked, randomized, controlled trial.  Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008;51:2141-2149. [PubMed]

Schnorr, O., Brossette, T., Momma, T., Kleinbongard, P., Keen, C.L., Schroeter, H., and Sies, H.  Cocoa flavanols lower vascular arginase activity in human endothelial cells in vitro and in erythrocytes in vivo.  Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 2008;476:211-215. [PubMed]

Borchers, A.T., Keen, C.L., and Gershwin, M.E.  Smoking cessation: Significance and implications for children. Clinical Review in Allergy and Immunology 2008;34:231-249. [PubMed]

Actis-Goretta, L., Romanczyk, L.J., Rodriguez, C.A., Kwike-Uribe, C., and Keen, C.L.  Cytotoxic effects of digalloyl dimer procyanidins in human cancer cell lines.  The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry.  2008;19: 797-808. [PubMed]

Gu, Y.S., Kong, J., Cheema, G.S., Keen, C.L., Wick, G., and Gershwin, M.E.  The immunobiology of systemic sclerosis. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism.  2008;38: 132-160. [PubMed]

Borchers, A.T., Krishnamurthy, A., Keen, C.L., Meyers, F.J., and Gershwin, M.E.  The immunobiology of mushrooms.  Experimental Biology and Medicine.  2008;233:259-276. [PubMed]

Lopez, V., Keen, C.L., Lanoue, L.  Prenatal zinc deficiency: influence on heart morphology and distribution of key heart proteins in a rat model.  Biological Trace Element Research 2008;122:238-255. [PubMed]

Borchers, A.T., Belay, A., Keen, C.L., and Gershwin, M.E.  Spirulina and immunity. In: Spirulina in Human Health  (M.E. Gerschwin and A. Belay, eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 177-194, 2007.

Polagruto JA, Gross, HB, Kamanger, F, Kosuna, K, Sun, B, Fujii, H, Keen CL, Hackman RM. Plateletreactivity in male smokers following the acute consumption of a flavanol-richgrapeseed extract. Journal of MedicinalFood10:725-730, 2007. [PubMed]

Chang C, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Treatment of eczema. Clinical Review in Allergy and Immunology33:204-225, 2007. [PubMed]

Shenoy SF, Keen CL, Kalgaonkar S, Polagruto JA. Effects of grape seed extract consumption onplatelet function in postmenopausal women.Thrombosis Research121:431-432,2007. [PubMed]

Selmi C, Bowlus CL, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease: the new epidemicand the need for novel nutritional approaches. Journal of Medicinal Food 10:563-565, 2007. [PubMed]

Seimi MN, Furlan R, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Inflammation and oxidative stress inobstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Experimental Biology and Medicine 232:1409-1413, 2007. [PubMed]

Yang SJ, Keen CL, Lanoue L, Rucker RB, Uriu-Adams J. Low nitric oxide: a key factor underlying copper deficiency teratogenicity. Free Radical Biology& Medicine43:1639-1648, 2007. [PubMed]

Hackman RM, Polagruto JA, Zhu QV, Sun B, Fujii H, Keen CL. Flavanols: digestion, absorption and bioactivity. Phytochemistry Reviews 7:195-208,2007.

Danzeisen R, Araya M, Harrison B, Keen CL, Solioz M, Thiele D, McArdle HJ. How reliable and robustare current biomarkers for copper status?British Journal of Nutrition 98:676-683, 2007. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Drug-Induced Lupus. Ann.N.Y. Academyof Sciences New York Academyof Sciences 1108:166-182, 2007. [PubMed]

Hackman RM, Havel PJ, Schwartz HJ, Rutledge JC, Stohs SJ,Stern JS and Keen CL. Response to Dr. Inchiosa (Letter to the Editor). InternationalJournal of Obesity 31:1482-1483, 2007.

Erdman JW, Balentine D,Arab L, Beecher G, Dwyer JT, Folts J, Harnly J, Hollman P, Keen CL, Mazza G,Messina M, Scalbert A, Vita J, Williamson G, and Burrowes J. Flavonoids andHeart Health: Proceedings of the ILSI North America Flavonoids Workshop May 31– June 1, 2005, Washington, DC. The Journal of Nutrition 137:718S-737S, 2007. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Hagie F,Keen CL, Gershwin ME. The history and contemporary challenges of the US food and drug administration. Clinical Therapeutics 29:1-16, 2007. [PubMed]

Mansour M, Cheema GS,Naguwa SM, Greenspan A, Borchers AT, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Ankylosingspondylitis: A contemporary perspective on diagnosis and treatment. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism36:210-223, 2007. [PubMed]

Kenny TP, Keen CL,Schmitz HH, Gershwin ME. Immune affects of cocoa procyanidin oligomers on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Experimental Biology and Medicine 232:293-300,2007. [PubMed]

Stern BR, Solioz M,Krewski D, Aggett P, Aw TC, Baker S, Crump K, Dourson M, Haber L, Hertzberg R,Keen CL, Meek B, Rudenko L, Schoeny R, Slout W, Starr T. Copper and human health: Biochemistry, genetics and strategies formodeling dose-response relationships. Journalof Toxicology Environmental Health Behavior B. Critical Review 10:157-222,2006. [PubMed]

Polagruto JA, Wang-Polagruto JF, Braun MM, Lee L, Kwik-UribeC, Keen CL. Cocoa flavanol-enrichedsnack bars containing phytosterols effectively lower total and LDL cholesterol. Journal of American Dietetic Association 106:1804-1813, 2006. [PubMed]

Yang SF, Uriu-Adams JY, Keen CL, Rucker RB,Lanoue L. Effects of copper deficiencyon mouse yolk sac vasculature and expression of angiogenic mediators. Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmentaland Reproductive Toxicology 77:445-454, 2006. [PubMed]

Mackenzie GG, Keen CL, OteizaPI. Microtubules are required for NF-ĸBnuclear translocation in neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells: modulation by zinc. Journal of Neurochemistry 99:402-415, 2006. [PubMed]

Ellis-Hutchings RG,Cherr GN, Hanna LA, Keen CL. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alternationsin vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation andearly postnatal development. Toxicology Applied Pharmacology 215:135-145, 2006. [PubMed]

Jones LC,McCarthy KA, Beard JL, Keen CL, Jones BC. Quantitative genetic analysis of brain copperand zinc in BXD recombinant inbred mice. Nutritional Neuroscience 9:81-92,2006. [PubMed]

Keen CL,Uriu-Adams JY. Assessment of zinc,copper and magnesium status: Current approaches and promising newdirections. In: Mineral Requirements forMilitary Personnel. The NationalAcedemies Press. Washington DC,pp 304-315, 2006.

Holt RR, Actis-Goretta L, Momma TY, Keen CL. Dietary flavanols and platelet reactivity.Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 47:S187-S196, 2006. [PubMed]

Wang-PolagrutoJF, Villablanca AC, Polagruto JA, Lee L, Holt, RR, Schrader HR, Ensunsa JL, SteinbergFM, Schmitz HH, and Keen CL. Chronicconsumption of flavanol-rich cocoa improves endothelial function and decreasesvascular cell adhesion molecule in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausalwomen. Journal of CardiovascularPharmacology 47:S177-S186, 2006. [PubMed]

Selmi C,Mao TK, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, Gershwin ME.The anti-inflammatory properties of cocoa flavanols. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 47:S163-S171,2006. [PubMed]

Davis PA,Polagruto JA, Valacchi G, Phung A, Soucck K, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Effects of appleextracts on NF-ĸB activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Experimental Biology and Medicine 231:594-598,2006. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Selmi C, Cheema G, Keen CL, Shoenfeld Y,Gershwin ME. Juvenile idiopathicarthritis. Autoimmunity Reviews 5:279-298,2006. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Chang C, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Airborne Environmental Injuries and Human Health. Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology31:1-101, 2006. [PubMed]

Ottaviani JI, Keen CL, Fraga CG. Chocolate and health:on the vascular effects of flavanols in cocoa. Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 17:9-12, 2006.

Borchers A, Keen CL, GershwinME. Complementary/alternative therapiesin asthma. In: Current ClinicalPractice: Bronchial Asthma: A Guide for Practical Understanding and Treatment.(ME Gershwin, TE Albertson, editors)Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, 5thedition: pp 181-199, 2006.

HackmanRM, Havel PJ, Schwartz HJ, Rutledge JC, Watnik MR, Noceti EM, Stohs SJ, SternJS, Keen, CL. Multinutrient supplementcontaining ephedra and caffeine causes weight loss and improves metabolic riskfactors in obese women: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Obesity. Pp: 1-12, 2006. [PubMed]

SchroeterH, Heiss C, Balzer J, Kleinbongard P, Keen CL, Hollenberg NK, Sies H,Kwik-Uribe K, Schmitz HH, and Kelm M. Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa onvascular function in humans. Proceedingsof the National Academy of Sciences. USA. 103: 1024-1029, 2006. [PubMed]

Beckers-TrappME, Lanoue L, Keen CL, Rucker RB, Uriu-Adams JY. Abnormal development and increased3-nitrotyrosine in Cu deficient mouse embryos. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 40: 35-44, 2006. [PubMed]

MackenzieGG, Zago MP, Erlejman AG, Aimo L, Keen CL, and Oteiza PI. Α-lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine preventzinc deficiency-induced activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcription factorsin human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells.Free Radical Research. 40: 75-84, 2006. [PubMed]

CleggMS, Hanna LA, NilesBJ, Momma TY, and Keen CL. Zincdeficiency-induced cell death. IUBMBLIFE. 57: 661 – 669, 2005. [PubMed]

ZagoMP, Mackenzie GG, Adamo AM, Keen CL, and Oteiza PI. Differential Modulation of MAP Kinases byZinc Deficiency in IMR Cells: Role of H2O2. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 7: 1773-1782, 2005. [PubMed]

Uriu-Adams JY, and Keen CL. Copper, oxidativestress and human health. MolecularAspects of Medicine, 26: 268-298, 2005. [PubMed]

Fraga CG, Oteiza PI and KeenCL. Trace elements and human health.(editorial) Molecular Aspectsof Medicine, 26: 233-234, 2005. [PubMed]

Aoki CA, Borchers AT, Ridgway WM, Keen CL, Ansari AA, and Gershwin ME. NOD mice and autoimmunity. Autoimmunity Reviews, 4:373-379, 2005. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Aoki CA,Naguwa SM, Keen CL, Shoenfeld Y, and Gershwin ME. Neuropsychiatric features of systemic lupuserythematosus. Autoimmunity Reviews, 4:329-344, 2005. [PubMed]

Rogers JM, Chernoff N, Keen CL, and Daston GP. Evaluation and interpretation of maternaltoxicity in Segment II studies: Issues, some answers, and data needs. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 207:5367-5374, 2005. [PubMed]

Verstraeten SV, HammerstoneJF, Keen CL, Fraga CG, and Oteiza PI. Antioxidant and membrane effects of procyanidin dimers and trimersisolated from peanut and cocoa. Journalof Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53:5041-5048, 2005. [PubMed]

Keen CL, Ensunsa JL,Lonnerdal B, and Zidenberg-Cherr S.Manganese: Physiology, dietary sources and requirements. In: Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, 2ndEdition (Caballero, B, Allen L and Prentice A, eds) Elsevier Ltd, Kidlington,Oxford, UK, Vol 1:217-225, 2005.

Borchers AT, Keen CL, andGershwin ME. Immunity. PhysiologicalAspects In: Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, 2nd Edition (Caballero,B, Allen L and Prentice A, eds) Elsevier Ltd, Kidlington, Oxford, UK, Vol3:1-6, 2005.

Verstraeten SV, Lanoue L, Keen CL, and Oteiza PI. Relevance of lipid polar headgroups on boron-mediated changes inmembrane physical properties. Archivesof Biochemistry and Biophysics, 438:103-110, 2005. [PubMed]

Uriu-Adams JY, Rucker RB, Commisso JF, and Keen CL. Diabetes and dietary copper alter 67 Cu metabolism and oxidant defensein the rat. Journal of NutritionalBiochemistry, 16:312-320, 2005. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Keen CL, and Gershwin ME. Hope for the hygiene hypothesis: When the dirthits the fan. Journal of Asthma. 42:225-247, 2005. [PubMed]

KimSH, Kim JY, Ed M, and Keen CL. Comparison of dietary patterns and nutrientintakes of elementary schoolchildren living in remote rural and urban areas in Korea:their potential impact on school performance. Nutrition Research. 25:349-363, 2005.

Oteiza PI, Erlejman AG, Verstraeten SV, Keen CL, and Fraga CG. Flavonoid-membrane interactions: A protectiverole of flavonoids at the membrane surface? Clinical and Developmental Immunology. 12:19-25, 2005. [PubMed]

Pearson DA, Holt RR, Rein D, Paglieroni, T. Schmitz, HH and Keen, CL. Flavanols and platelet reactivity. Clinical and Developmental Immunology. 12:1-9, 2005. [PubMed]

Zhu QY, Schramm DD, Gross HB, Holt RH, Kim SH, Yamaguchi T, Kwik-uribe CL, and KeenCl. Influence of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins of free-radical-induced humanenytrocyte hemolysis. Clinical and Developmental Immunology. 12:27-34, 2005. [PubMed]

Fraga CG, Actis-Goretta L, Ottaviani JI, Carrasquedo F, Lotito SB, Lazarus S, SchmitzHH and Keen CL. Regular consumption of a flavanol rich chocolate can improveoxidant stress in young soccer players. Clinical and Developmental Immunology. 12:11-17, 2005. [PubMed]

Keen CL, Holt RH, Oteiza PI, Fraga CG and Schmitz HH. Cocoa antioxidants andcardiovascular health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 81:2985-3035, 2005 [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Keen CL and Gershwin, ME. Fatalities following allergenimmunotherapy. Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology. 2004;27:147-158. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Naguwa SM, Keen CL and Gershwin, ME. The diagnosis and managementof anaphylaxis. Comprehensive Therapy. 2004;30:111-120. [PubMed]

EnsunsaJL, Symons DJ, Lanoue L, Schrader HR, and Keen CL. Reducing arginase activity via dietarymanganese deficiency enhances endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of rataorta. Experimental Biology andMedicine. 2004;229:1143-1153. [PubMed]

Chou SS, Clegg MS, Momma TY, Niles BJ, Duffy JY, Daston GP, and Keen CL. Alterations in protein kinase C activity and processing during zinc deficiency-induced cell death. Biochemical Journal 2004;383:63-71. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Keen CL, Shoenfeld Y, and Gershwin ME. Surviving the butterfly and the wolf: Mortality trends in systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmunity Reviews 2004;3:423-453. [PubMed]

Oberbauer AM, Stiglich C, Murray JD, Keen CL, Fong DL, Smith LB, and Cushwa S. Dissociation of body growth and adipose deposition effects of growth hormone in oMtla-oGh Transgenic mice. Growth Development and Aging 2004;68:33-45. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Keen CL, Cheema GS, and Gershwin ME. The use of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatology 2004;34:465-483. [PubMed]

Kenny TP, Jones P, Kung H-J, Schmitz HH and Keen CL. Cocoa procyanidins inhibit proliferation and angiogenic signals in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells following stimulation by low level H2O2. Experimental Biology and Medicine 2004;229:255-263. [PubMed]

Cui CT, Uriu-Adams JY, Tchaparian EH, Keen CL, and Rucker RB. Metavanadate causes cellular accumulation of copper and decreased lysyl oxidase activity. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2004;199:35-43. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Keen CL, and Gershwin ME. Probiotics and prebiotics. In: Handbook of Nutrition and Immunity. (ME Gershwin; P. Nestle; CL Keen; editors). Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, 2004, 213-242.

Keen CL, Uriu-Adams JY, Ensuna JL, and Gershwin ME. Trace elements/minerals and immunity. In: Handbook of Nutrition and Immunity. (ME Gershwin; P. Nestle; CL Keen; editors). Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, 2004, 117-140.

Kris-Etherton PM, LeFevre M, Beecher GR, Gross MD, Keen CL, Etherton TD. Bioactive compounds in nutrition and health research methodologies for establishing biological function: The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids on atherosclerosis. Annual Reviews of Nutrition 2004;24:511-538. [PubMed]

Turnlund JR, Jacob RA, Keen CL, Strain JJ, Kelley DS, Domek JM, Keyes WR, Ensunsa JL, Lykkesfeldt J, and Coulter J. Long-term high copper intake: effects on indices of copper status, antioxidant status, and immune function in young men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;79:1037-1044. [PubMed]

Kim SH, Ensunsa JL, Zhu QY, Kim JS, Shin HS, and Keen CL. An eighteen- month follow-up study on the influence of smoking on blood antioxidant status of teenage girls in comparison to male adult smokers in Korea. Nutrition 2004;20:437-444. [PubMed]

Duffy JY, Overmann GJ, Keen CL, Clegg MS, and Daston GP. Cardiac Abnormalities induced by zinc deficiency are associated with alterations in the expression of genes regulated by the zinc-finger transcription factor GATA-4. Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology 2004;71:102-109. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Keen CL, and Gershwin ME. Mushrooms, tumors and immunity: An update: Experimental Biology and Medicine 2004;229:393-406. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Mao TK, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, and Watanabe H. Traditional Asian medicine and oral health. Journal of Traditional Medicine 2004;21:17-26.

Kenny TP, Keen CL, Jones P, Kung HJ, Schmitz HH, and Gershwin ME. Pentameric procyanidins isolated from Theobroma cacao seeds selectivity down-regulate ErbB2 in human aortic endothelial cells. Experimental Biology and Medicine 2004;229:255-263. [PubMed]

Mackenzie GG, Carrasquedo F, Delfino JM, Keen CL, Fraga CG, and Oteiza PI. Epicatechin, catechin and dimeric procyanidins inhibit PMA-induced NF-?B activation at multiple steps in Jurkat T cells. FASEB Journal 2004;18:167-169. [PubMed]

Uriu-Adams JY, Keen CL. The influence of maternal nutrition on phthalate teratogenicity. In: Wypych, G (eds). Handbook of Plasticizers. ChemTech Publishing, Ontario, Canada 545-556, 2004.

Verstraeten SV, Zago MP, Mackenzie GG, Keen CL, and Oteiza PI. Influence of zinc deficiency on cell membrane fluidity in Jurkat 3T3, and IMR-32 cells. Biochemical Journal 2004;378:579-587. [PubMed]

Keen CL, Hanna LA, Yang SJ, Lanoue L, Uriu-Adams JY, Rucker RB, Andersen H, and McArdle H. Developmental toxicology of copper deficiency and excess. In: Lagos GE, Warner AEM, and Sanchezs M, (eds). Copper, Environment and Sustainable Development. Vol.2 Met Soc Publications. Montreal, Canada 401-414, 2004.

Polagruto JA, Schramm DD, Wang-Polagruto JF, Lee L, and Keen CL. Effects of flavonoid-rich beverages on prostacyclin synthesis in humans and human aortic endothelial cells: association with ex vivo platelet function. Journal of Medicinal Foods 2004;6:301-308. [PubMed]

Wang JF, Lazarus SA, Schmitz HH and Keen CL. The role of flavonols and their related oligomers in cardiovascular health. In: Shahidi F., Weerasinghe DK, (eds). Nutraceutical Beverages, Chemistry, Nutrition, and Health Effects. ACS Symposium Series 2004;871:237-253.

Schroeter H, Holt RR, Orozco TJ, Schmitz HH and Keen CL. Milk and absorption of dietary flavanols. Nature 2003;426: 787-788. [PubMed]

Actis-Goretta L, Ottaviani JI, Keen CL and Fraga CG. Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity by flavan-3-ols and procyanidins. FEBS Letters 555:597-600. 2003. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Keen CL and Gershwin ME. Use and misuse of corticosteroids. Comprehensive Therapy 2003;29:157-165. [PubMed]

Tomkins A, Davies C, Goldenberg R, Jackson A, Keen C, King J and Nestel P. Nutrition as a preventative strategy against adverse maternal pregnancy outcomes – a USAID/Wellcome Trust Workshop at Merton College, Oxford, UK, 18-19 July 2002 (commentary). Public Health Nutrition 2003;6:629-630. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, So C, Naguwa SM, Keen Cl, and Gershwin ME. Clinical and immunologic components of sarcodoisis. Clinical Review in Allergy 2003;25: 289-394. [PubMed]

Keen CL, Holt RR, Carrasquedo F, Gershwin ME, Mao TK, and Schmitz HH. Flavanol-rich foods and cardiovascular health. In: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Health (N.S. Dhalla, A Chockalingam, H.I. Berkowitz, P.K. Singal eds) 209-226. 2003.

Fraga CG and Keen CL. Flavanols and procyanidins as modulators of oxidation in vitro and in vivo. In: Free Radicals, Nitric Oxide and Inflammation: Molecular, Biochemical and Clinical Aspects. NATO-ASI Series IOS Press 2003;344:24-33.

Hanna LA, Clegg MS, Momma TY, Daston GP, Rogers JM, and Keen CL. Zinc influences the in vitro development of peri-implantation mouse embryo. Birth defects research part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 2003;67:414-420. [PubMed]

Keen CL, Hanna LA, Lanoue L, Uriu-Adams J, Rucker RB, and Clegg MS. Developmental consequences of trace mineral deficiencies in rodents: Acute and long-term effects. The Journal of Nutrition 2003;133:1477S-1480S. [PubMed]

Keen CL, Jue T, Tran CD, Vogel J, Downing RG, Iyengar V, and Rucker RB. Analytical methods: improvements, advancements and new horizons. The Journal of Nutrition 2003;133:1574S-1578S. [PubMed]

Kim SH, Han JH, Zhu QY, and Keen CL. Use of vitamins, minerals, and other dietary supplements by 17- and 18-year-old students in Korea. Journal of Medicinal Foods 2003;6:27-42. [PubMed]

Borchers A, Naguwa S, Keen C, and Gershwin M. Immunopathogenesis of sjogren’s syndrome.Clinical Review in Allergy and Immunology 2003;25:89-104. [PubMed]

Leazer TM, Daston GP, Keen CL, and Rogers JM. The embryolethality of lipopolysaccharide in CD-1 and metallothionein I-II null mice: lack of a role for induced zinc deficiency or metallothionein induction. Toxicological Sciences 2003;73: 442-447. [PubMed]

Schramm DD, Karim M, Polagruto JA, Schrader HR, Holt RR, Kirkpatrick NJ, Ensunsa JL, Schmitz HH, and Keen CL. Food effects on the absorption and pharmacokinetics of cocoa flavanols. Life Sciences 2003;73: 857-869. [PubMed]

Keen CL, Clegg MS, Hanna LA, Lanoue L, Rogers JM, Daston GP, Oteiza P, and Uriu-Adams JY. The plausibility of micronutrient deficiencies being a significant contributing factor to the occurrence of pregnancy complications. The Journal of Nutrition 2003;133:1597S-1605S. [PubMed]

Golub MS, Germann SL,and Keen CL. Developmental aluminum toxicity in mice can be modulated by low concentrations of minerals (Fe, Zn, P, Ca, Mg) in the diet. Biological Trace Element Research 2003;93: 213-226. [PubMed]

Orozco TJ, Wang JF, and Keen CL. Chronic consumption of a flavanol and procyanindin-rich diet is associated with reduced levels of 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine in rat testes. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2003;14:104-110. [PubMed]

Hawk SN, Lanoue L, Keen CL, Kwik-Uribe CL, Rucker RB, and Uriu-Adams JY. Copper deficient rat embryos are characterized by low superoxide dismutase activity and elevated superoxide anions. Biology of Reproduction 2003;68:896-903. [PubMed]

Schramm DD, Karim M, Schrader HR, Holt RR, Cardetti M, and Keen CL. Honey with high levels of antioxidants can provide protection to healthy human subjects. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2003;12:1732-1735. [PubMed]

Kim SH, Kim, JS, Shin, HS and Keen CL. Influence of smoking on markers of oxidative stress and serum mineral concentrations in teenage girls in Korea. Nutrition 2003;19:240-243. [PubMed]

Steinberg FM, Bearden MM, and Keen CL. Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: Implications for cardiovascular health. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2003;103:215-223. [PubMed]

Zhu QY, Hammerstone JF, Lazarus SA, Schmitz HH, and Keen CL. Stabilizing effect of ascorbic acid on flavan-3-ols and dimeric procyanidins from cocoa. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52003;1: 828-833. [PubMed]

Mao TK, Van De Water J, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, and Gershwin ME. Cocoa. Flavanols and procyanidins promote TGF –$1 homeostasis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Experimental Biology and Medicine 2003;228: 93-99. [PubMed]

Verstraeten SV, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, Fraga CG, and Oteiza PI. Flavan-3-ols and procyanidins protect liposomes against lipid oxidation and disruption of the bilayer structure. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2003;34:84-92. [PubMed]

Mao TK, Van De Water J, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, and Gershwin ME. Modulation of TNF-alpha secretion in peripheral blood monocular cells by cocoa flavanols and procyanidins. Developmental Immunology 2002;9:135-41. [PubMed]

Keen CL, Holt RR, Polagruto JA, Wang JF, and Schmitz HH. Cocoa flavanols and cardiovascular health. Phytochemical Reviews 2002;1:231-240.

Borchers AT, Keen CL, Shoenfeld Y, Silva JS, and Gershwin ME. Vaccines, viruses, and voodoo. Journal of Investigative Allergology and Clinical Immunology 2002;12:155-168. [PubMed]

Steinberg FM, Holt RR, Schmitz HH, and Keen CL. Cocoa procyanidin chain length does not determine ability to protect LDL from oxidation when monomer units are controlled. The Journal of Nutrition Biochemistry 2002;13:645-652. [PubMed]

Ottaviani JI, Carrasquedo F, Keen CL, Lazarus SA, Schmitz HH, and Fraga CG. Influence of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins on UVC mediated formation of 8-Oxo-7, 8-dehydro-2’-deoxyguanosine in isolated DNA. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 2002;406:203-208. [PubMed]

Pearson DA, Paglieroni TG, Rein D, Wun T, Schramm DD, Wang JF, Holt RR, Gosselin R, Schmitz HH and Keen CL. The effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and aspirin on ex vivo platelet function. Thrombosis Research 2002;106:191-197 [PubMed]

Zhu QY, Hackman RM, Ensunsa JL, Holt RR, and Keen CL. Antioxidant activities of oolong tea. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2002;50:6929-6934. [PubMed]

Mackenzie GG, Keen CL and Oteiza PI. Zinc status of human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells influences their susceptibility to iron-induced oxidative stress. Developmental Neuroscience 2002;24:125-133. [PubMed]

Borchers, A.T., Keen, C.L. and Gershwin, M.E. Microgravity and immune responsiveness: implications for space travel. Nutrition 2002;18:889-898. [PubMed]

Pearson, D.A., Paglieroni, T.G., Rein, D., Wun, T., Schramm, D.D., Wang, J.F.,Holt, R.R., Gosselin, R., Schmitz, H.H. and Keen, C.L. The effects of flavoanol-rich cocoa and aspirin on ex vivo platelet function. Thrombosis Research 2002;106:191-197. [PubMed]

Mackenzie, G.G., Zago, M.P., Keen, C.L. and Oteiza, P.I. Low intracellular zinc impairs the translocation of activated NF-?B to the nuclei in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2002;277:34610-34617. [PubMed]

Holt, R.R., Lazarus, S.A., Sullards, M.C., Zhu, Q.Y., Schramm, D.D., Hammerstone, J.F., Fraga, C.G., Schmitz, H.H. and Keen, C.L. Procyanidin dimer B2 (The epicatechin-(4b-8)-epicatechin) in human plasma after the consumption of a flavonol-rich cocoa. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;76:798-804. [PubMed]

Hannum, S.M., Schmitz, H.H. and Keen, C.L. Chocolate: a heart-healthy food? Show me the science! Nutrition Today 2002;37:3:103-109. [PubMed]

Mao, T.K., Van de Water, J., Keen, C.L., Schmitz, H.H. and Gershwin, M.E. The effect of cocoa flavanols and their related oligomers on the secretion of interleukin-5 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Journal of Medicinal Foods 2002;5:17-22. [PubMed]

Golub MS, Zhang W, Keen CL, and Goldkorn T. Cellular Action of A1 at Low (1.25 mM) Concentrations in Primary Oligodendrocyte Culture. Brain Research 2002;94:82-90. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Keen CL, and Gershwin ME. The Influence of Yogurt/Lactobacillus on the Innate and Acquired Immune Response. Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology 2002;22:207-230. [PubMed]

Kim SH and Keen CL. Vitamin and mineral supplement use among children attending elementary schools in Korea: A survey of eating habits and dietary consequences. Nutrition Research 2002;22:433-448.

Zhu QY, Holt RR, Lazarus SA, Orozco TJ, and Keen CL. Inhibitory Effects of Cocoa Flavonols and Procyanidin Oligomers on Free Radical-Induced Erythrocyte Hemolysis. Experimental Biology and Medicine 2002;227:321-329. [PubMed]

Holt RR, Schramm DD, Keen CL, Lazarus SA, and Schmitz HH. Flavonoid-Rich Chocolate and Platelet Function. Journal of the American Medical Association 2002;287:2212-3. [PubMed]

Corlett JL, Clegg MS, Keen CL, and Grivetti LE. Mineral Content of Culinary and Medicinal Plants Cultivated by Hmong Refugees Living in Sacramento, California. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition 2002;53:117-128. [PubMed]

Zhu QY, Holt RR, Lazarus SA, Ensuna JL, Hammerstone JF, Schmitz HH and Keen CL. Stability of the Flavan-3-ols Epicatechin and Catechin and Related Dimeric Procyanidins Derived from Cocoa. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2002;50:6:1700-1705. [PubMed]

Kris-Etherton PM and Keen CL. Evidence that the Antioxidant Flavonoids in Tea and Cocoa are Beneficial for Cardiovascular Health. Current Opinion in Lipidology 2002;13:41-49. [PubMed]

Dressendorfer RH, Petersen SR, Moss Lovshin SE, and Keen CL. Mineral Metabolism in Male Cyclists During High-Intensity Endurance Training. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2002;12:63-72. [PubMed]

Mao TK, Van de Water J, Keen CL, Osburn BO, Silva JS Jr., and Gershwin ME. Effects of a Combination of Traditional Chinese Botanicals (Immune+) on the Secretion of Interleukin-1b and Interferon-g by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. Journal of Medicinal Food 2001;4:1-8. [PubMed]

Kim SH, Han JH, Ed M. and Keen CL. Vitamin and mineral supplement use by healthy teenagers in Korea: Motivating factors and dietary consequences. Nutrition 2001;17:373-380. [PubMed]

Duffy JY, Miller CM, Rutschiling GL, Ridder GM, Clegg MS, Keen CL and Daston GP. A decrease in intracellular zinc level precedes the detection of early indicators of apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Apoptosis 2001;6:161-172.  [PubMed]

Tamura T, Olin KL, Goldenberg RL, Johnston KE, DuBard MB, and Keen CL. Plasma extracellular superoxide dismutase activity in healthy pregnant women is not influenced by zinc supplementation. Biological Trace Element Research 2001;80:1-7. [PubMed]

Fraga CG, Hammerstone JF, Lazarus SA, Schmitz H and Keen CL. More antioxidants in cocoa. Journal of Nutrition 2001;131:835.

Satre MA, Jessen KA, Clegg MS and Keen CL. Retinol-binding protein expression is induced in HEPG2 cells by zinc deficiency. FEBS Letters 2001;491:266-71. [PubMed]

Uriu-Adams JY, Reece CK, Nguyen LK, Horvath BJ, Nair R, Barter RA and Keen CL. Effect of butyl benzyl phthalate on reproduction and zinc metabolism. Journal of Toxicology 2001;159:55-68. [PubMed]

Tanaka A, Borchers AT, Ishibashi H, Ansari AA, Keen CL and Gershwin ME. Genetic and familial considerations of primary biliary cirrhosis. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2001;96:8-15. [PubMed]

Keen CL. Chocolate: food as medicine/medicine as food. Journal of American College Nutrition. 2001;(5 Suppl):436S-439S; discussion 440S-442S. [PubMed]

Oteiza, PI, Clegg MS, Keen CL. Short-term zinc deficiency affects NF-KB nuclear binding activity in rat testes. Journal of Nutrition 2001;131:21-26. [PubMed]

448. 2001 Schramm DD, Wang JF, Holt RR, Ensunsa JL, Gonsalves JL, Lazarus SA, Schmitz HH, and Keen CL. Chocolate procyanidins decrease the leukotriene-prostacyclin ratio in humans and human aortic endothelial cells. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73:36-40. [PubMed]

Pearson DA, Schmitz HH, Lazarus SA, Keen CL. Inhibition of in vitro low-density lipoprotein oxidation by oligomeric procyanidins present in chocolate and cocoa. Methods of Enzymology 2001;335:350-361. [PubMed]

Burke KE, Clive J, Combs GF, Commisso J, Keen CL, Nakamura RM. The effects of topical and oral vitamin E on pigmentation and skin cancer induced by ultraviolet irradiation in Skh:2 hairless mice. Nutrition and Cancer 2000;38:87-97. [PubMed]

Lomer MCE, Thompson RPH, Commisso J, Keen CL and Powell JJ. Determination of titanium dioxide in foods using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Analyst 2000;125:2339-2343. [PubMed]

Lotito SB, Actis-Goretta L, Renart ML, Caligiuri M, Rein D, Schmitz HH, Steinberg FM, Keen CL, and Fraga CG. Influence of oligomer chain length on the antioxidant activity of procyanidins. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2000;276: 945-951. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Keen CL, Stern JS, and Gershwin ME. Nutraceuticals: Separating chaff from grain. California Agriculture 2000;54:26-32.

Zidenberg-Cherr S, Neyman M, Fechner K, Sutherlin J, Johns M, Lamp C, Garrett C, and Keen CL. Nutrition may influence toxicant susceptibility children elderly. California Agriculture 2000;54:19-25

Keen CL and Zidenberg-Cherr SA. What are the best strategies for achieving optimal nutrition? California Agriculture 2000;54:12-18.

Keen CL and Osburn B. We are what we eat: Ensuring safe and healthy food in the 21st century. [editorial overview]. California Agriculture 2000;54:4-7.

Borchers AT, Keen CL, Shoenfeld Y, and Gershwin ME. How to Outfox Mother Nature: Autoimmunity: Moving from Shadows to Sunshine. Israel Medical Association Journal 2000;2:15-22. [PubMed]

Mao TK, Powell JJ, Van de Water J, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, and Gershwin ME. The Effect of Cocoa Procyanidins on the Secretion of Interleukin-4 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. Journal of Medicinal Food 2000;3: 107-114.

Golub MS, Germann SL, Han B, Keen CL. Lifelong Feeding of a High Aluminum Diet to Mice. Toxicology 2000;150: 107-117. [PubMed]

Gospe SM, Caruso RD, Clegg MS, Keen CL, Pimstone NR, Ducore JM, Gettner SS, and Kreutzer RA. Paraparesis, hypermanganesemia and polycythemia: a novel presentation of cirrhosis. Archives Of Disease in Childhood 2000;83:439-442. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Sakai S, Henderson GL, Harkey MR, Keen CL, Stern JS, Terasawa K, and Gershwin ME. Shosaiko-To and Other Kampo (Japanese Herbal) Medicines: A review of their immunomodulatory activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2000;73: 1-13. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Keen CL, Hannum S, and Gershwin ME. Cocoa and Chocolate: Composition, bioavailability, and health implications. Journal of Medicinal Food 2000;3: 77-105.

Jankowski-Hennig MA, Clegg MS, Daston GP, Rogers JM, and Keen CL. Zinc deficient rat embryos have increased caspase 3-like activity and apoptosis. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2000;271: 250-256. [PubMed]

Kwik-Uribe CL, Golub MS, and Keen CL. Chronic marginal iron intakes during early development in mice alter brain iron concentrations and behavior despite postnatal iron supplementation. The Journal of Nutrition 2000;130: 2040-2048. [PubMed]

Hirschi KK and Keen CL. Nutrition in embryonic and fetal development. Nutrition 2000;16: 495-499. [PubMed]

Borchers AT, Keen CL, Stern JS, and Gershwin ME. Inflammation and Native American Medicine: The role of botanicals. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;72: 339-347. [PubMed]

Golub MS, Keen CL, and Gershwin ME. Moderate zinc-iron deprivation influences behavior but not growth in adolescent rhesus monkeys. The Journal of Nutrition 2000;130: 354S-357S. [PubMed]

Mao T, Van de Water J, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, and Gershwin ME. Cocoa procyanidins and human cytokine transcription and secretion. The Journal of Nutrition 2000;130: 2100S-2104S. [PubMed]

Wang JF, Schramm DD, Holt RR, Ensunsa JL, Fraga CG, Schmitz HH, and Keen CL. A Dose-dependent effect from chocolate consumption on plasma epicatechin and oxidative damage. The Journal of Nutrition 2000;130: 2114S-2119S. [PubMed]

Rein D, Lotito S, Holt RR, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, and Fraga CG. Epicatechin in human plasma: in vivo determination and effect of chocolate consumption on plasma oxidation status. The Journal of Nutrition 2000;130: 2109S-2114S. [PubMed]

Rein D, Paglieroni TG, Pearson DA, Wun T, Schmitz HH, Gosselin R, and Keen CL. Cocoa and wine polyphenols modulate platelet activation and function. The Journal of Nutrition 2000;130: 2120S-2126S. [PubMed]

Oteiza PI, Clegg MS, Zago MP and Keen CL. Zinc deficiency induces oxidative stress and AP-1 activation in 3T3 cells. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 2000;28: 1091-1099. [PubMed]

Gershwin ME, Borchers AT, and Keen CL. Phenotypic and Functional Considerations in the Evaluation of Immunity in Nutritionally Compromised Hosts. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2000;182: S108-S114. [PubMed]

Rein D, Paglieroni TG, Wun T, Pearson DA, Schmitz HH, Gosselin R, and Keen CL. Cocoa inhibits platelet activation and function. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;72:30-5. [PubMed]

Mao TK, Powell JJ, Van de Water J, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, Hammerstone JF, Gershwin ME. The effect of cocoa procyanidins on the transcription and secretion of interleukin-1β in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Life Sciences 2000;66: 1377-1386. [PubMed]

Tchaparian EH, Uriu-Adams JY, Keen CL, Mitchell AE and Rucker RB. Lysyl oxidase and P-ATPase-7A expression during embryonic development in the rat. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 2000;379: 71-77. [PubMed]

Hong KH, Keen CL, Mizuno Y, Johnston KE, Tamura T. Effects of dietary zinc deficiency on homocysteine and folate metabolism in rats. Journal of Nutrition and Biochemistry 2000;11: 165-169. [PubMed]

Bearden MM, Pearson DA, Rein D, Chevaux KA, Carpenter DR, Keen CL. Potential Cardiovascular Health Benefits of Procyanidins Present in Chocolate and Cocoa. In: Parliament TH, Ho C-T, Schieberle P (eds.). Caffeinated Beverage Health Benefits, Physiological Effects, and Chemistry. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society 177-187. 2000.

Keen CL, Ensunsa JL, Clegg MS. Manganese metabolism in animals and humans including the toxicity of manganese. Metal Ions in Biological Systems 2000;37: 89-121. [PubMed]

Uriu-Adams JY, Horwath BJ, Murray FJ, Downing G, Strong P, and Keen CL. The temporal effects of low dietary boron (B) on tissue B concentrations in rats. Trace Elements in Man and Animals 2000;333:1085-1086.

Lanoue L, Murray FJ, Strong PL, and Keen CL. Adverse in vitro development of preimplantation mouse embryos exposed to low boron diet and low boron. Trace Elements in Man and Animals 2000;332:1083-1084. [PubMed]

Rucker RB, Cui CT, Tchaparian EH, Mitchell AE, Clegg M, Uriu-Hare JY, Rucker B, Stites T and Keen CL. Dietary copper, vanadate, lysyl oxidase activity, and lysine tyrosyl quinone formation. Trace Elements in Man and Animals 2000;291:929-932.

Rucker RB, Cui CT, Tchaparian EH, Mitchell AE, Clegg M, Uriu-Hare JY and Keen CL. Dietary vanadium, P-atpase-7A expression and the influence on lysyl oxidase and CU accumulation in rat skin and liver. Trace Elements in Man and Animals 2000 ;52:186-187.