Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Ph.D.

 Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Ph.D.


  • Associate Professor
  • Department of Nutrition/Department of Environmental Toxicology
  • Associate Nutritionist
  • Agricultural Experiment Station



  • B.S., Chemistry, Botany, Zoology, Pune University, India
  • M.S., Organic Chemistry, Pune University, India
  • Ph.D., Bioorganic Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science

Research Interests

Dr. Gaikwad’s research interests include: 1. Development of mass spectrometric analytical methods for comprehensive measurement of the small molecules in the cells/tissues/body fluids. 2. Development of biomarkers by applying target / profile oriented metabolomic methods. 3. Modulation of metabolic profile by using antioxidants, polyphenols, flavones and phytochemicals.


Selected Publications

Huang YL, Supasai S, Kucera H, Gaikwad NW, Adamo AM, Mathieu P, Oteiza PI. Nutritional marginal zinc deficiency disrupts placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 modulation. Food Funct. 2015 Dec 8. [PubMed]

Bettaieb A, Hosein E, Chahed S, Abdulaziz A, Kucera HR, Gaikwad NW, Haj FG. Decreased adiposity and enhanced glucose tolerance in shikonin treated mice. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Sep 16. doi: 10.1002/oby.21263. [PubMed]

Jiang M, Klein M, Zanger UM, Mohammad MK, Cave MC, Gaikwad NW, Selcer KW, Guo Y, He J, Zhang X, Shen Q, Qin W, Li J, Li S, Xie W. Inflammatory Regulation of Steroid Sulfatase, A Novel Mechanism to Control Estrogen Homeostasis and Inflammation in Chronic Liver Disease. J Hepatol. 2015 Jul 25. pii: S0168-8278(15)00513-9. [PubMed]

Xie W, Chai X, Guo Y, Jiang M, Hu B, Li Z, Fan J, Deng M, Billiar T, Kucera H, Gaikwad NW, Xu M, Lu P,  Yan J, Fu H, Liu Y, Yu L, Huang M, Zeng S. Estrogen sulfotransferase ablation sensitizes mice to sepsis. Nature Communications, 2015 Aug 10;6:7979. [PubMed]

Yan Guo, Bingfang Hu, Hai Huang, Allan Tsung, Nilesh Gaikwad, Meishu Xu, Mengxi Jiang, Songrong Ren, Jie Fan, Timothy R. Billiar, Min Huang, and Wen Xie. Estrogen sulfotransferase is an oxidative stress responsive gene that gender-specifically affects liver ischemia/reperfusion injury, Journal of Biological Chemistry, doi:10.1074/jbc.M115.642124, 2015. [PubMed]

Chengfei Liu, Wei Lou, Yezi Zhu, Joy C. Yang, Nagalakshmi Nadiminty, Nilesh W.Gaikwad, Christopher P. Evans, Allen C. Gao. Intracrine androgens and AKR1C3 activation confer resistance to enzalutamide in prostate cancer, Cancer Research, 75, 1413-1422, 2015. [PubMed]

Hemantkumar Chavan, Feng Li, Robert Tessman, Kristine Mickey, Kenneth Dorko, Timothy Schmitt, Sean Kumer, Sumedha, Gunewardena, Nilesh Gaikwad, and Partha Krishnamurthy. Metabolic disturbance in the ATP binding cassette transporter Abcb6 deficient mice results in suppression of hepatic Cytochrome P450 activity, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 290: 7871-7886, 2015. [PubMed]

Jiang M, He J, Kucera H, Gaikwad NW, Zhang B, Xu MW, O’Doherty RM, Selcer KW, Xie W. Hepatic Over-expression of Steroid Sulfatase Ameliorates Mouse Models of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes through Sex-Specific Mechanisms.    Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289: 8086-8097, 2014. [PubMed]

Krishnan S, Gustafson MB, Campbell C, Gaikwad NW, Keim NL. Association between circulating endogenous androgens and insulin sensitivity changes with exercise training in midlife women. Menopause, 2014 Sep;21(9):967-74. [PubMed]

Gaikwad NW. Mass spectrometry evidence for formation of estrogens-homocysteine conjugates: estrogens can regulate homocysteine levels. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2013;65: 1447-1454. [PubMed]

Kucera HR, Livingstone M, Moscoso CG, Gaikwad NW.  Evidence for NQO1 and NQO2 Catalyzed Reduction of ortho- and para-Quinone Methides.   Free Radical Research. 2013;47: 1016–1026. [PubMed]

Gaikwad NW.  Metabolomic profiling unravels DNA adducts in human breast that are formed from peroxidase   mediated activation of estrogens to quinone methides.    PLoS One. 2013;8: e65826.[PubMed]

Gaikwad NW.  Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for profiling of steroid  metabolome in human tissue.    Anal Chem. 2013;85:4951-4960. [PubMed]

Cyphers A, Powis TG, Gaikwad NW, Grivetti LE, Cheong K, Hernandez Guevara E. La detección de teobromina en vasijas de ceramic olmeca: nuevas evidencias  sobre el uso del cacao en San Lorenzo, Veracruz. Arqueologia. 2013;46:153-166. [Article]

Powis TG, Gallaga Murrieta E, Lesure R, Lopez Bravo R, Grivetti L, Kucera H, Gaikwad NW.  Prehispanic Use of Chili Peppers in Chiapas, Mexico.     PLoS One, 8: e79013, 2013. [PubMed]

Zuno-Floriano FG, Holstege D, Hengel MJ, Gaikwad NW, Aldana-Madrid ML, Miller MG. Determination of vitamin A and its metabolites in rat testis: possible involvement of vitamin A in testicular toxicity caused by molinate. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. 2012;88(6): 1038-42. [PubMed]

Zuno-Floriano FG, Miller MG, Aldana-Madrid ML, Henge, MJ, Gaikwad NW, Tolstikov V, Contreras-Cortés AG. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L.) alpha variety. PloS one. 2012;7(2): e31221. [PubMed]

Gaikwad NW, Bodell WJ. Peroxidase-mediated dealkylation of tamoxifen, detected by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and activation to form DNA adducts. Free radical biology & medicine. 2012; 52(2): 340-7. [PubMed]

Gaikwad NW, Murman D, Beseler CL, Zahid M, Rogan EG, Cavalieri EL. Imbalanced estrogen metabolism in the brain: possible relevance to the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Biomarkers. 2011;16(5): 434-44. [PubMed]

Powis TG, Cyphers A, Gaikwad NW, Grivetti L, Cheong K. Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2011; 108(21): 8595-600. [PubMed]

Gaikwad NW, Yang L, Weisenburger DD, Vose J, Beseler C, Rogan EG, Cavalieri EL. Urinary biomarkers suggest that estrogen-DNA adducts may play a role in the aetiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Biomarkers 2009;14(7):502-12. [PubMed]

Singh, S., Zahid, M., Saeed, M., Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Meza, J.L. Chakravarti, D., Cavalieri, E.L., Rogan, E.G. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase I Arg139Trp and Pro187Ser polymorphsims imbalance estrogen metabolism towards DNA adduct formation in human mammary epithelial cells. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2009.07.003, 2009. [PubMed]

Muhammad Saeed, Sheila Higginbotham, Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Dhrubajyoti Chakravarti, Eleanor Rogan, Ercole L Cavalieri. Depurinating naphthalene-DNA adducts in mouse skin related to cancer initiation. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 47, 1075-1081, 2009. [PubMed]

Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Li Yang, S. Pruthi, James Ingle, Eleanor Rogan, Ercole Cavalieri. Urine biomarkers of risk in the molecular etiology of breast cancer. Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research 2009;3:1-8. [PubMed]

Li Yang, Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Jane Meza, Ercole Cavalieri, Paola Mutti, Bruse Trock, Eleanor Rogan. Novel biomarkers for the risk of prostate cancer: Results from case-control study. Prostate 2009;69:41-48. [PubMed]

Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Li Yang, Rogan Eleanor, Ercole Cavalieri. Evidence for NQO2-mediated protection against carcinogenic estrogen ortho-quinones. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2009;46:553-562. [PubMed]

Sydney S. Mirvish, Michael E. Davis, Michal P. Lisowyj, Nilesh W. Gaikwad. Effect of feeding nitrite, ascorbate, hemin and omeprazole on excretion of fecal total apparent N-nitroso compounds in mice. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2008;21:2344-2351. [PubMed]

Sripathy, S. P., Chaplin, L. J., Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Rogan, E. G., Montano, M. M. hPMC2 is required for recruiting an ER coactivator complex to mediate transcriptional upregulation of NQO1 and protection against oxidative DNA damage by tamoxifen. Oncogene 2008;27:6376-6384. [PubMed]

Muhammad Zahid, Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Muhammad Ali, Fang Lu, Muhammad Saeed, Li Yang, Eleanor G. Rogan, Ercole L. Cavalieri. Prevention of estrogen-DNA adducts formation in MCF-10F cells by Resveratrol. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2008;45:136-145. [PubMed]

Tristan M. Sissung, Romano Danesi, Douglas K. Price, Seth M. Steinberg, Ronald de Wit, Muhammad Zahid, Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Ercole Cavalieri, William L. Dahut, Dan L. Sackett, William D. Figg, Alex Sparreboom. Association of the CYP1B1*+3 allele with survival in patients with prostate Cancer receiving docetaxel. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 2008;7:19-26. [PubMed]

Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Li Yang, Paola Muti, Jane Meza, Sandhya Pruthi, James Ingle, Eleanor Rogan, Ercole Cavalieri. The Molecular Etiology of Breast Cancer and Biomarkers of Risk. International Journal of Cancer 2008;122:1949-57. [PubMed]

Muhammad Zahid, Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Eleanor G. Rogan, Ercole L. Cavalieri. Inhibition of depurinating estrogen-DNA adduct formation by natural compounds. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2007;20:1947-1953. [PubMed]

Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Eleanor Rogan, Ercole Cavalieri. Evidence by ESI-MS for NQO1-Catalyzed Reduction of Estrogen ortho-Quinone. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2007;43:1289-1298. [PubMed]

Muhammad Zahid, Muhammad Saeed, Fang Lu, Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Eleanor G. Rogan, Ercole L. Cavalieri. Inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase increases estrogen-DNA adduct Formation. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2007;43:1534-1540. [PubMed]

Yan Zhang, Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Kevin Olson, Muhammad Zahid, Ercole L. Cavalieri, Eleanor G. Rogan. Cytochrome P450 isoforms catalyze oxidation of catechol estrogens to their quinones, which react with DNA. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 2007;56:887-894. [PubMed]

M.M. Montano, L.J. Chaplin, H. Deng, S.M. Vela, Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Zahid M., E. Rogan. Protective Roles of Quinone Reductase and Tamoxifen against Estrogen-induced Mammary Tumorogenesis. Oncogene 2007;26:3587-3590. [PubMed]

Dhrubajyoti Chakravarti, M. Zahid, Matthew Backora, Erin Myers, Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Dennis Weisenburger, Ercole Cavalieri, Eleanor Rogan, Shantaram Joshi. Ortho-quinones of benzene and estrogen induce hyperproliferation of human periferal blood Mononuclear Cells. Leukemia & Lymphoma 2006;47:2635-44. [PubMed]

Markushin, Y., Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Zhang, H., Kapke, P., Rogan, E.G., Cavalieri, E.L., Trock, B.J., Pavlovich, C., Jankowiak, R. Potential Biomarker for Early Risk Assessment of Prostate Cancer. Prostate 2006;66:1565-1571. [PubMed]

Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Geum-Sook Hwang, I.H. Goldberg. Synthesis and NMR Binding Study of a Chiral Spirocyclic Helical Analogue of a Natural DNA Bulge Binder. Organic Letters 2004:6:4833-4836. [PubMed]

William J. Bodell, Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Douglas Miller, Mitchael Berger. Formation of DNA Adducts and Induction of lac-I Mutations in Big Blue Rat-2 Cells Treated with Temozolomide: Implications for the Treatment of Low-Grade Adult and Pediatric Brain Tumors. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 2003;12:545-551. [PubMed]

Nilesh W. Gaikwad, William J. Bodell. Formation of DNA Adducts in HL-60 Cells Treated With the Toluene Metabolite p-Cresol: A Potential Biomarker for Toluene Exposure. Chemistry-Biology Interaction 2002;145:149-158. [PubMed]

Nilesh W. Gaikwad, K.M. Madyastha, Biosynthesis of Substituted Furan Skeleton in the Lower Furanoterpenoids: A Model Study. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2002:290:589-594. [PubMed]

Nilesh W. Gaikwad, William J. Bodell. Formation of DNA Adducts by Microsomal and Peroxidase Activation of p-Cresol: Role of Quinone Methide in DNA Adduct Formation. Chemistry-Biology Interaction 2001;138:217-229. [PubMed]

K.M. Madyastha, Nilesh W. Gaikwad. Metabolic Disposition of a Monoterpene Ketone, Piperitenone in Rats: Evidence for the Formation of a Known Toxin, p-Cresol. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 1999;27:74-80. [PubMed]

Vadiraja Bhat, B., Nilesh W. Gaikwad, K.M. Madyastha. Hepatoprotective Effect of C phycocyanin: Protection for Carbon tetrachloride and R(+)-Pulegone Mediated Hepatotoxicity in Rats. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1998;249:428-431. [PubMed]

K.M. Madyastha, Nilesh W. Gaikwad. Metabolic Fate of S-(-)-Pulegone in Rats. Xenobiotica 1998;28:723-34. [PubMed]